How to draw a Lotus || Lotus scenery drawing in easy steps drawings || Easy lotus Drawing

How to draw a Lotus || Lotus scenery drawing in easy steps drawings || Easy lotus Drawing.

easy oil pastel drawings lotus flower
how to draw flowers for beginners step by step

How do you draws pictures of a pastel color
We have described it through this picture,
there are many reality matches in this photo,
I hope that your you can learn a lot
The colors used to create this painting are called "Glass Marking" and Oil Pastel,

Lotus plant

Carpellary receptacle of Lotus
The roots of lotus are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on the water's surface or are held well above it. The flowers are usually found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the leaves.
The leaf stalks (petioles) can be up to 200 cm (6 ft 7 in) long, allowing the plant to grow in water to that depth and a horizontal spread of 1 m (3 ft 3 in).
The leaves may be as large as 80 cm (31 in) in diameter, while the showy flowers can be up to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter.

Researchers report that the lotus has the remarkable ability to regulate the temperature of its flowers to within a narrow range just as humans and other warmblooded animals do. Roger S.
Seymour and Paul Schultze-Motel, physiologists at the University of Adelaide in Australia,
found that lotus flowers blooming in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens maintained a temperature of 30–35 °C (86–95 °F),
even when the air temperature dropped to 10 °C (50 °F). They suspect the flowers may be doing this to attract coldblooded insect pollinators.
Studies published in the journals Nature and Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences were in 1996 and 1998 important contributions in the field of thermoregulation, heat-producing, in plants.
Two other species known to be able to regulate their temperature include Symplocarpus foetidus and Philodendron selloum.

An individual lotus can live for over a thousand years and has the rare ability to revive into activity after stasis.
In 1994, a seed from a sacred lotus, dated at roughly 1,300 years old 270 years, was successfully germinated.

The traditional Sacred Lotus is only distantly related to Nymphaea caerulea but possesses similar chemistry.
Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and aporphine.

The genome of the sacred lotus was sequenced in May 2013.


The Sacred Lotus grows in water up to 2.5 m (8 ft).
The minimum water depth should not be less than 30 cm (12 in). In colder climates, such a low water level, which heats up more quickly,
is helpful for better growth and flowering. Lotus germinates at temperatures above 13 °C (55 °F). Most varieties are not cold-hardy.
In the growing season from April to September (northern hemisphere), the average daytime temperature needed is 23 to 27 °C (73 to 81 °F).
In regions with low light levels in winter, the sacred lotus has a period of dormancy. The tubers are not cold-resistant but can resist temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) if they are covered with an insulating cover of water or soil.
During wintertime, the roots have to be stored at a frost-free place.


The sacred lotus requires a nutrient-rich loamy soil.
At the beginning of the summer period (from March until May in the northern hemisphere),
a small part of rhizome with at least one eye is either planted in ponds or directly into a flooded field.
There are several other propagation ways via seeds or buds.
Furthermore, tissue culture is a promising propagation method for the future to produce high volumes of uniform, true-to-type, disease-free materials.

The first step of the cultivation is to plow the dry field. One round of manure is applied after ten days, before flooding the field.
To support a quick initial growth, the water level is held relatively low and is increased when plants grow.
Then a maximum of approximately 4000 rhizome pieces per hectare (10000 per acre) are used to plant directly into the mud 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in) below the soil surface.

Lotus bud

Lotus bud in an advanced stage of bloom
The stolon is ready to harvest two to three months after planting.
It must be harvested before the flowering.
Harvesting the stolon is done by manual labor,
too. For this step, the field is not drained.
By pulling and shaking the young leaves in the shallow water,
the stolon is pulled out of the water.

Three months after planting,
the first leaves and flowers can be harvested.
Flowers can be picked every two days during summer and every three days during the colder season.
Four months after planting, the production of flowers has a climax.
The harvest of flowers is usually done by hand for three to four months.

Seeds and seed pods can be harvested when they turn black four to eight months after planting.
After sun drying for two to three days,
they are processed by mechanical tools to separate seed coats and embryos.

The rhizomes mature to a suitable stage for eating in approximately six to nine months.
Early varieties are harvested in July until September and late varieties from October until March after the ponds or fields are drained.
The large,
starch-rich rhizomes are easy to dig out of the drained soil. In small scale production,
they are harvested by hand using a fork like tools.
In Japan and on bigger farms the manual labor harvesting is fully replaced by machines.

Varieties and cultivars
Lotus varieties have been classified according to their use into three types:
rhizome lotus, seed lotus, and flower lotus. Varieties that show more than one of these characteristics are classified by the strongest feature.
Regarding the production area in China, rhizome lotus has the largest area with 200,000 ha (490,000 acres), followed by seed lotus with 20,000 ha (49,000 acres).

Rhizome lotus

Rhizome lotus cultivars produce a higher yield of and higher quality rhizomes than that of seed or flower lotus cultivars. Furthermore,
this group grows the tallest and produces very few to no flowers.

Cultivars can be classified by harvest time or by the depth of rhizomes into these types:

Premature (early) cultivars are harvested before the end of July,
serotinous (late) cultivars from September on and mid-serotinous or mid-matutinal cultivars are in between these harvest times.
Using pre-mature cultivars,
rhizomes can be harvested earlier and therefore be sold for a higher price.
Ad littoral, deep, and intermediate cultivars are distinguished according to the depth in which the rhizomes grow underground.
Adlittoral cultivars range from 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) depth and are often pre-mature.
They develop faster due to the higher temperature in surface soil layers.
When harvested in July,
and littorals have higher yields than deeper growing cultivars, but not necessarily when harvested in September.
Rhizomes of littoral cultivars are crisp and good for frying purposes. Deep cultivars grow more than 40 cm (16 in) deep.
They are often serotinous and can harvest a high yield. Their rhizomes are starch-rich.
The main popular Nelumbo nucifera cultivars in China are Elian 1,
Elian 4, Elian 5, 9217, Xin 1 and 00–01.
The average yield of these cultivars is 7.5–15 t/ha (3.3-6.7 tons/acre) of harvest in July and 30–45 t/ha (13-20 tons/acre) of harvest in September.
In Australia, the cultivar grown for the fresh rhizome market in Guangdong and in Japan,
the common rhizome cultivars are Tenno and Bitchu.

Seed lotus

Nelumbo nucifera seed head
The characteristics of seed lotus cultivars are a large number of carpels and seed sets as well as large seeds with better nutritional properties.
Roots of these varieties are thin, fibrous and do not form good rhizomes.
The main popular cultivars for seed production in China are Cunsanlian, Xianglian 1,
Zilian 2, Jianlian, Ganlian 62 and Taikong 36.
The average yield of these cultivars in China is 1.05–1.9 t/ha (0.5–0.8 tons/acre) of dry seeds and weight of thousand seeds between 1,020 to 1,800 g (36 to 63 oz).
Green Jade and Vietnam-Red are recommended cultivars for seed production in Australia.

Flower lotus

Flower lotus cultivars are used exclusively for ornamental purposes,
produce a large number of flowers and the lowest plant height.

The seed production of flower lotus is poor regarding yield and quality.
Flower types differ in the number of petals (single petals,
double petals or multi-petals) and their colors range from single color in white,
yellow, pink, red to bi-color,
most often of white petals with pink tip or highlights.


About 70% of lotus for human consumption is produced in China. In 2005,
the cultivation area in China was estimated at 300,000 hectares (740,000 acres).
A majority of lotus production takes place in managed farming systems in ponds or flooded fields like rice.

The most widely used system is crop rotation with rice and vegetables.
This system is applicable if the propagule (small piece of rhizome) can be planted early in the year.
The rhizomes are harvested in July,
after which rice can be planted into the same field.
Rice is then harvested in October. From November until March, the field stays either free or a terricolous vegetable,
such as cabbage or spinach,

which is planted. Alternatively, the vegetable can also be planted after the harvest of lotus.

Another alternative way is to not harvest the lotus rhizome, although it is ripe.
A terricolous vegetable is planted between the rhizomes into the drained field. The rhizomes are then harvested next March.

A third way is to plant lotus in ponds or fields and raise aquatic animals such as fish, shrimp or crab in the same field.
More efficient use of the water for both,
the aquatic animal and the lotus production, has been identified with this planting pattern.


Lotus rhizomes

Boiled, sliced lotus roots used in various Asian cuisines
The rhizomes of the lotus are consumed as a vegetable in Asian countries,
extensively in China and Japan: sold whole or in cut pieces, fresh, frozen,
or canned. They are fried or cooked mostly in soups, soaked in syrup or pickled in vinegar (with sugar, chili, and garlic).
Lotus rhizomes have a crunchy texture with sweet-tangy flavors and are a classic dish at many banquets where they are deep-fried, stir-fried,
or stuffed with meats or preserved fruits. Salads with prawns,
sesame oil or coriander leaves are also popular. Unfortunately, fresh lotus root slices are limited by a fast browning rate. Lotus root tea is consumed in Korea.

Japan is one of the primary users of the rhizomes,
representing about 1% of all vegetables consumed. Japan grows its own lotus but still must import 18,000 tons of lotus rhizome each year,
of which China provides 15,000 tons yearly.

Rhizomes contain high amounts of starch (31.2%) without characteristic taste or odor. The texture is comparable to a raw potato.
The binding and disintegration properties of isolated Nelumbo starch have been compared with maize and potato starch; Nelumbo starch is shown to be superior as an adjuvant in the preparation of tablets.
When dried, N. Nucifera is also made into flour, another popular use of this vegetable.

Lotus pip tea is consumed in Korea.


Fresh lotus seeds ready to eat
Fresh lotus seeds (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: pinyin: Cantonese Yale: sīn lìhnjí) are nutritious but also vulnerable to microbial contamination,
especially fungal infections. Therefore, mostly dry lotus seed-based products are found on the market.
Traditional sun baking combining with charcoal processing dries the seeds but results in loss of nutrients.
Freeze-dried lotus seeds have a longer shelf life and maintain original nutrients,
while no differences in flavor are found after rehydration compared to fresh lotus seeds.

Dry stored lotus seeds are sensitive to moisture and mold infestation; researchers continue to explore new ways to preserve fresh lotus seeds, for example,
radiation processing.

Lotus seeds can be processed into moon cake, lotus seed noodles and food in forms of paste, fermented milk,
rice wine, ice cream, popcorn (Phool makhana) and others, with lotus seeds as the main raw material.
Traditional Eastern medicine claims that fresh lotus seed wine has thirst-quenching, spleen healing, and anti-diarrheal advantages after drinking,
attributed to unspecified bioactive compounds. Lotus seed tea is consumed in Korea, and lotus embryo tea is consumed in China and Vietnam.

Young lotus stems are used as a salad ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine.

In north and eastern regions of India, the stalk of the flower is used to prepare a soup called "Kamal gate ki Sabji"(कमल गट्टे की सब्जी) and a starter called "kamal kak di pakode"(कमल ककडी पकौडे).
In South Indian states, the lotus stem is sliced, marinated with salt to dry,
and the dried slices are fried and used as a side dish. In Kerala (in Malayalam) and Tamil Nadu, this end product is called " Thamara Vathal".

In China and Korea, the lotus leaf tea (Korean: yeonipcha) is made from the leaves of the lotus.
It is also used as a wrap for steaming rice and sticky rice and other steamed dishes in Southeast Asian cuisine,
such as lo mai gai in Chinese cuisine or Kao hor bai bua, fried rice wrapped in lotus leaf in Thai cuisine.


Lotus flower tea
In Korea, lotus flower tea yeonkkotcha is made from the dried petals of the white lotus.

The stamens can be dried and made into a fragrant herbal tea (Chinese pinyin: liánhuā cha; Cantonese Yale chat),
or used to impart a scent to tea leaves (particularly in Vietnam). This Vietnamese lotus.


The petals, leaves, and rhizome can also all be eaten raw, but there is a risk of parasite transmission (e.g., Fasciolopsis buski): it is therefore recommended that they are cooked before eating.

Use in water treatment
Nelumbo nucifera shows high potential for usage in wastewater treatment removing polluting compounds and heavy metals.
It is able to grow in variable water conditions and in low light intensity. Various studies show the successful use of N.
Nucifera to counteract water eutrophication. The leaves of the floating lotus reduce sunlight reaching the lower part of the water.
This suppresses algae growth in N. Nucifera aquatic systems and thus, the oxygen content is up to 20% higher than in other aquatic plant systems.
Due to intense agricultural practices, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution are major problems in aquatic systems. N. Nucifera is able to assimilate a higher content of phosphorus than aquatic plants currently.